Date of Award

Spring 5-11-2018

Document Type

Project (696 or 796 registration)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Curriculum & Instruction


Graduate Studies

Committee Chair

Ximena Suarez-Sousasu


subitizing, automaticity, addition, subtraction, ten-frames, interventions


The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of implementing 10-minute warm-ups before math lessons that included the structuring of numbers to 10 through the use of imaging with fingers, dots, 10-frames, bead, and dice flashes. The end result being an improvement in students’ abilities to compose and decompose numbers in addition or subtraction math facts. The study addressed the questions:

  1. Can subitizing increase addition and subtraction automaticity?
  2. How does the FastBridge Assessment Tool enable teachers to document how students use numbers flexibly (combining numbers to make another number)?
  3. Can subitizing interventions be effective in helping students develop mental strategies for addition and subtraction involving two-digit numbers?

The study compared data between a 1st grade class that received the intervention, and a class that did not. The most significant gains were visible after the implementation of the intervention (Progress Monitor 3 to 4). A two-sample T-test was preformed; the Progress Monitor 3 from the Intervention Group (M=43.5, SD=16.939) to Progress Monitor 4 (M=47.7, SD=18.162) did not differ significantly on levels of extraversion, t(1) = .65498, p = .2589. The Progress Monitor 3 from the Comparison Group (M=20.8, SD=13.751) to Progress Monitor 4 (M=25.7, SD=13.719) had the same result, t(1) = .977, p = .1685. Although the data showed significant gains being documented in Progress Monitor 4, there was not enough evidence to say that the intervention was successful because the change could have been due to natural variability. However, because of the vast difference between the scores of the Intervention Group and the Comparison Group, there seemed to be a positive correlation between subitizing and increased math automaticity.