Date of Award


Document Type

Project (696 or 796 registration)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Special Education


Graduate Studies

Committee Chair

Marci Glessner


Physical and health disabilities, Gifted students, Identification and programming


The public has long known about famous gifted persons with physical and health disabilities (P/HDs). However, many school-based gifted or special educators may not believe that such K-12 youth can be gifted or have these disabilities, or they may not know how to serve these students exceptionalities. This capstone paper, a 1995-2023 update of a 1977-94 literature search from gifted P/HD educational and psychology journals which led to the author’s Distinguishing Traits of Gifted Students with Disabilities (Friedrichs, 2001), strives like the preceding paper to illuminate reader understanding of gifted P/HD students. The new document specifically conveys to special and gifted educators these six themes, from the late 20th century twice-exceptional (2e) literature, which are especially relevant to gifted P/HD students: 1) the rise and remaining challenges involving 2e youth, 2) the definitions and percentages of gifted students, P/HD youth, and gifted P/HD students, 3) relevant traits and identification of gifted youth, 4) traits and identification of P/HD students, 5) effective programming approaches for gifted youth, and 6) school programming for P/HD pupils.



To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately,
you may Download the file to your hard drive.

NOTE: The latest versions of Adobe Reader do not support viewing PDF files within Firefox on Mac OS and if you are using a modern (Intel) Mac, there is no official plugin for viewing PDF files within the browser window.