Date of Award

Spring 4-15-2024

Document Type

Project (696 or 796 registration)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Counseling


Graduate Studies

Committee Chair

Aaron Suomala Folkerds


ADHD, self-esteem, group, counseling


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common condition that affects a significant number of the world’s population, especially young adults (CDC, 2022). ADHD has its roots in behaviors of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness, and while it is new to mental health, these patterns have been observed throughout history. ADHD is a stigmatized diagnosis, and with this stigma can come low self-esteem (Mueller et al., 2012). On the macro and micro levels, the stigma can come from a variety of places, whether it be from cultural attitudes, bullying, body weight, or preferred method of treatment. Another dimension of the stigma is that a lot of people consider ADHD to be only hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsiveness when in reality, individuals experience introversion, difficulty understanding social cues, sensory disturbances, poor memory, and executive dysfunction (Song et al., 2021). There are all diagnoses that often occur alongside ADHD, including depression and anxiety. Counseling and medication have been shown to be effective first line treatments in ADHD. With these considerations in mind, a group therapy manual has been created to provide an empirically based treatment that not only teaches individuals to manage their ADHD, but it teaches them ways to improve their self-esteem and communicate with the world around them.



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