Date of Award

Spring 5-14-2021

Document Type

Project (696 or 796 registration)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Curriculum & Instruction


Graduate Studies

Committee Chair

Ximena Suarez-Sousa


effects, flexible seating, autonomy, on-task behaviors, lower elementary


This 2021 study focused on the effects of traditional and flexible seating had on student engagements and autonomy in second and third grade students. The focus was to see which type of seating most benefit student focus, attention, attitude, and morale. Students were observed in four increments per day for four weeks. The first two weeks focused on traditional seating and the second two weeks were focused on flexible seating. Students were also given a survey to present their preferences on both types of seating, traditional and flexible. The research took place in two North Dakota Elementary schools during independent literacy centers, also known as Daily 5. The data and results were as follows. There was not a significant difference between on and off task behaviors for the two seating options. Trends in data showed preference was a significant factor in student engagement. Giving students a choice proved to be beneficial to the learning outcomes.



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