A Theoretical Framework of Sports Team’s Well-Being: An Integrative Perspective of Role Equivocality and Emotional Intelligence on Trust and Happiness
The purpose of this study is to develop and provide an integrative conceptual model of sports teams’ well-being to achieve a win-win situation of happiness for all stakeholders of sports teams, grounded in role theory and commitment-trust theory. I first conceptualized well-being as an ultimate consequence by exploring sub-dimensions of happiness and providing relevant hypotheses linking with the respective antecedents. Second, I explored the effect of antecedents of sports team’s well-being as an anchor between the positive and negative sides of the resultant outcomes – i.e., trust and happiness. Third, I examined the role of trust as a mediating factor in the relationship between the antecedents and sports team’s well-being. Then, I proposed a model of sports teams’ well-being to understand a mechanism among relevant measurements. Literature suggests that two ambivalent components affect psychological satisfaction and happiness by trading off the effect of each dimension. Those two contributing factors include equivocality, having a negative characteristic caused by different role, multiple information sources and communication methods, while emotional intelligence entails a positive characteristic comprised of self-awareness, self-regulation, motivation, empathy and social skills. Then, those antecedents affect strength of trust (level of trust for self and teammates regarding expected performance) and ultimately determine student-athletes’ well-being (objective performance, cohesiveness and overall satisfaction belonging to a team). Particularly, trust mediates the relationship between the antecedents and student-athletes’ well-being by diluting negative factors while intensifying positivity. The theoretical and practical implications of this conceptual model are discussed.