Date of Award

Spring 5-1-2022

Document Type

Project (696 or 796 registration)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Curriculum & Instruction


Graduate Studies

Committee Chair

Kristen Carlson


mathematical discourse, classroom discussion, discussion prompting, student engagement


This qualitative and quantitative study compared the effect of paper-pencil work in a mathematical discourse with problems and prompts presented virtually through various technological tools. The participants of this study were ninth and tenth grade students in two separate blocks of geometry class. These classes consisted of predominantly White students split into class sizes of 26 and 21. Since students were separated into two different geometry classes, one class was given paper problems and discussion prompts while the other received problems and prompts through Desmos Classroom Activities. This way, a quantitative analysis of three data points could be compared between the two classes to analyze the effect the different media had on student to student mathematical discourse. After weeks of analysis, data showed that paper prompting was slightly more effective at stimulating mathematical discussion. In fact, most of the discussion came while students worked through discrepancies in answers. Meaning, even though technology helped students learn with immediate feedback and learning aids, it was the mistakes in students’ work, without immediate feedback, that helped students collaborate verbally and work to understand their mistakes.



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