Date of Award

Fall 12-15-2022

Document Type

Project (696 or 796 registration)

Degree Name

Master of Science in Curriculum & Instruction


Graduate Studies

Committee Chair

Dr. Kristen Carlson


Handwritten, Digitally, five-paragraph essay, Performance, Causal Comparative


Technology use in the secondary education setting has been increasing since the early 2000s, but with the coronavirus pandemic in 2020, when students learned remotely, technology use exponentially increased. Many districts provided devices for their students to continue their schoolwork. As we return to the classroom, should assignments remain technology-based or return to handwritten assignments? In this study, the researcher focused on identifying whether handwritten work or typing is more effective when developing a five-paragraph analysis essay in a ninth-grade classroom. Students were given the same curriculum throughout the study, but one group was given the curriculum through worksheets to focus on handwritten work, while the other group was given their assignments digitally and was able to type the information. The results are shown using an independent Mann-Whitney U test to compare the students’ five-paragraph analysis essay scores.



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